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根据生理周期规划训练更有效(下)

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Here, then, is fertile ground for quite a few of those percentage-point improvements.

这时就是可以提高很多个百分点的沃土。

And that is where menstrual-cycle-savvy coaches come in.

这就是精通生理周期的教练们的用武之地。

One possible tactic is phase-based training, in which a coach adjusts the intensity, volume and type of an athlete’s workouts based on where she is in her cycle.

一种可能的策略是分阶段训练,即教练根据运动员在周期中所处的位置调整训练的强度、量和类型。

Stacy Sims, a researcher at Auckland University of Technology, in New Zealand, recommends athletes increase intensity in the low-hormone follicular phase of the cycle, when the body is primed to bear heavy loads.

新西兰奥克兰理工大学的研究员斯泰西·西姆斯建议运动员在周期的低激素卵泡阶段增加强度,此时身体已经准备好承受沉重的负荷。

Later, during the luteal phase, when bodies are less able to adapt to stress, she recommends focusing on steady-state aerobic training to allow proper bodily recovery.

之后,在黄体期,当身体对压力的适应能力较差时,她建议专注于稳定状态的有氧训练,以使身体得到适当的恢复。

This pattern of training, she believes, allows female athletes to push themselves in the most efficient manner.

她认为,这种训练模式能够让女运动员以最有效的方式推动自己。

Such a one-size-fits-all approach may, though, be overly simple.

然而,这种一刀切的做法可能过于简单。

Kirsty Elliott-Sale, a professor at Manchester Metropolitan University, in Britain, thinks there is, as yet, no conclusive scientific evidence to back phase-based training.

英国曼彻斯特城市大学教授柯斯蒂·埃利奥特-赛尔认为,到目前为止,还没有确凿的科学证据支持分阶段训练。

However, while wary of general guidelines, Dr Elliott-Sale sees the merits of an individualised approach which takes account both of monthly variation within an individual and inter-individual variability.

然而,尽管埃利奥特-赛尔博士对一般指南持谨慎态度,但他看到了个性化方法的优点,这种方法既考虑了个人内部的月度变化,也考虑了个体之间的差异。

This latter source of variety may also help explain why conclusive population-level scientific evidence is hard to come by.

后一种多样性的来源也可能有助于解释为什么难以获得确凿的群体层面的科学证据。

A regular cycle can last between 21 and 40 days, and the hormonal details -- how fast concentrations change, when they peak and how high they peak -- vary.

一个规律的周期可以持续21到40天,激素的细节--浓度变化的速度,达到峰值的时间,峰值的高度--各不相同。

Also, different women experience different sensitivities to hormonal changes.

此外,不同的女性对荷尔蒙变化的敏感度也不同。

Some have no symptoms.

有些人没有任何症状。

For others, the effects may include debilitating cramps, bloating, migraines and depression.

对其他人来说,其影响可能包括使人虚弱的抽筋、腹胀、偏头痛和抑郁。

Maddy Cope, a professional climber and coach in Britain, emphasises the need to bridge the gap between where research stands and how athletes feel.

英国职业登山者兼教练麦迪·科普强调,有必要弥合研究结果和运动员感受之间的差距。

She notes, for example, that most research does not translate well to her own discipline.

例如,她指出,大多数研究都不能很好地适用于她自己的训练。

Climbing is a supremely technical matter, and the tests used in research compare poorly with the actual demands of the sport.

攀岩是一个非常技术性的运动,研究中使用的测试与这项运动的实际需求相比差得很多。

Even here, though, a little menstruation-driven thinking may help.

不过,即使在这个问题上,一些生理期驱动的思想也可能会有所帮助。

Most good training plans for climbers include exercises of a range of intensities and incorporate a “de-load” week, to allow the body to recover.

大多数好的攀岩者训练计划都包括一系列强度的锻炼,并在一周内进行“减压”,让身体恢复。

Menstrual-cycle-informed training in this case might be as simple as arranging for the de-load week to coincide with the stress-sensitive luteal phase.

在这种情况下,与生理期相关的训练可能非常简单,就像安排减负周一样,适应压力敏感的黄体期就可以。

Menstrual-cycle coaching is, then, in its infancy.

因此,生理周期指导还处于初级阶段。

But, as women’s sports jostle more and more with men’s for the limelight, and the sums of money involved increase, many more athletes are giving it a go.

但是,随着女子体育项目与男子体育项目在聚光灯下的竞争越来越激烈,涉及的资金也越来越多,越来越多的运动员开始尝试。

In this and other areas, female sports-science is a promising field of research, as the fiction that men are the baseline and women an anomaly -- a rib, as it were, pulled from the chest of research on men -- is put to rest.

在这一领域和其他领域,女性体育科学是一个很有前途的研究领域,因为男性是基准,女性是异类--可以说是从男性研究的胸膛中拔出的一根肋骨--已经告一段落。

In sport, as in other areas, it is time for women to unlock their full potential.

在体育领域,和其他领域一样,现在是女性充分释放全部潜力的时候了。

Period.

周期。

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